MUSCICAPIDAE

Back in the early 20th century, the Muscicapidae family (Old World insectfeeders) counted nearly 600 species. The 1951 Revised Classification for the Birds of the World, by Alexander Wetmore listed the Turdidae (Thrushes) and Timaliidae (Babblers) separately, but Peters, on which listing Howard & Moore based their 1980 check list, brought them back under the Muscicapidae. H&M then separated Turdidae again in 1990.

Ripley wrote in 1952: “Hartert (1910) listed the thrushes as a subgroup within the Muscicapidae, and this arrangement has been followed recently by Mayr and Amadon (1951). The principal objections to such a classification have been expressed by Witherby, Jourdain, Ticehurst, and Tucker (1938). In actual effect the objections to listing the thrushes as a subfamily may be reduced to the simple fact that the group is a very large one numerically, and that to lump them together with such other large groups as the warblers, babblers, and flycatchers into a single family may be an exceedingly unwieldly arrangement. This of course is true, but against this must be balanced the lack of well-defined characters, morphological or otherwise, to separate these groups.”

Traditionally, Old World chats and robins (incl. nightingale and bluethroat) were regarded as small thrushes and placed in the Turdidae family (e.g. Voous, 1977). Evidence from DNA analysis by the French ornithologist Alice Cibois (Geneva, Switzerland) and the American Joel Cracraft (New York) shows that they form a group separate from the thrushes with various kinds of Old World flycatchers, redstarts, wheatears, whistling thrushes and rock thrushes nested among them, as such implemented in the 2003 Howard and Moore Checklist of Birds, and were placed in newly defined Cossyphinae (African forest robin assemblage, incl. Erithacus rubecula, European Robin) and Saxicolinae subfamilies within Muscicapidae, next to Muscicapinae, following the Dutch ornithologist George Sangster (Leiden) et al. who erected Niltavinae as a fourth subfamily (out of Muscicapinae) in 2010, diagnosed as monophyletic on the basis of a molecular phylogeny, and as such implemented in the 2013 Howard and Moore Checklist, at the same time moving Myophonus, Alethe, Brachypteryx, Monticola and the monotypic Heinrichia from Turdidae to Muscicapidae (Saxicolinae), in 2004 proposed by the American ornithologists Gary Voelker (Texas A&M University) and Garth M. Spellman (University of Nevada, Las Vegas).

Old World chats and robins were already listed within Muscicapidae in the 1991 American Check List “Birds of the World” of James E. Clements (following Dr. Charles Sibley and Dr. Burt L. Monroe’s 1990 DNA-DNA hybridisation studies, but using the orders and families of Dr. Frank Gill in his 1990 ‘Ornithology’). AOU followed in 2011.

Taxonomic disturbance

European Nightingale and Robin moved twice to Muscicapidae within 35 years.

With the Thrushes and allies in the main lists of the 1950s in the family Turdidae, moving to the subfamily Turdinae within the huge family Muscicapidae (Sylviidae and Timaliidae, Warblers and Babblers moved likewise), species like the Wheatear, Nightingale, Bluethroat and Robin in this way moved from the family Turdidae (subfamily Phoenicurinae) to the family Muscicapidae (subfamily Turdinae) by the 1960s, done so in the 1st edition of the Howard and Moore 1980 check list, and then, with the family Muscicapidae reduced to the Old World Flycatchers in the 1980s on the European continent check list, back to Turdidae, while by 2003 the above species moved back to this very Muscicapidae family once again, but now with the Robins/Chats/Wheatears added after DNA investigation, so actually just moved from Turdidae to Muscicapidae. The Americans reduced the Muscicapidae to Old World Flycatchers only in 1998, without a New World representative, and did the above move back to Muscicapidae in 2011, with one species occurring in the New World, the Northern Wheatear, summering in Alaska, Canada and Greenland but wintering in sub-Saharan Africa.

Not so with the Sino-Himalayan (Hodgson’s) Grandala (Grandala coelicolor) which was a Turdidae thrush in the 1950s listings, moved to Muscicapidae (subfamily Turdinae) at Peters in 1964, and at H&M 1980, then to Turdidae in 1990, to the stripped Muscicapidae in 2003, and back to Turdidae in 2013. This ‘bluebird over the mountains’, together with the American Sialia bluebirds (occurring from Canada to Nicaragua) form the earliest radiation of Turdidae, dating back to the early Miocene (23 to 16 million years ago).

The Grandala breeds at up to 5500 meters, where hardly any other bird can be seen, often on the edge of the eternal snow. They display starling-like behavior: their fast-paced flight, in which the long wings often look like a swallow, is interrupted by skillful turns and floating glides. The flighty animals rise up in large swarms, often circling high in the air and unfold their azure blue splendor.

Old World Flycatchers have specialized the feed on the many aerial insects that swarm in the shade under the forest canopy. Because of the priority rule Muscicapa (Latin = Flycatcher) has priority as the first published scientific name for the turdine group, although it is now dominated by chats and robins with more terrestrial habits.

In 1952, the American ornithologist Ripley wrote in ‘The Thrushes’: “I have felt impelled to place nearly all the small robin-like birds in one expanded genus, Erithacus. This action will be questioned by many, especially in western Europe where the robin is preeminent, a familiar bird to all, indeed a legendary bird. The weight of public opinion will lean toward keeping the Robin Redbreast apart, separate. Outside Europe, in Asia and Africa, however, there are so many parallel and related forms of robin-like birds that I prefer to lump them all into this one genus. Seebohm included Luscinia, Larvivora, and Calliope in Erithacus, genera which were revived later while Luscinia is enlarged to include Cyanosylvia. The genus Tarsiger and the three African genera Pogonocichla, Sheppardia, and Stiphrornis appear to me to be better placed in Erithacus.”

So with the 1980 Howard and Moore check list, based on Peters, all were Erithacus in this decade, though Luscinia was held at various authorities (e.g. Voous), and by 2003 at Howard and Moore as well.

The Central African Mountain Robin Chat and the Archer's Robin Chat or Ground Robin in the Cossypha genus were in the Dryocichloides genus during the 1980s, and moved back to Cossypha, while others (of which two were an Alethe at Peters) moved to the Sheppardia genus, and are now called Akalats.

The Grey-winged Robin Chat was a Cossypha polioptera at Peters, a Dryocichloides at H&M 1980, became a Sheppardia (Akelat) in 1991, changed back to a Cossypha Robin Chat in 2003, again a Sheppardia (Akelat) in 2013 (BirdLife in 2016), but IOC is still listing it as a Cossypha Robin Chat. The Xenocopsychus Robin Chat (now Angolan Cave Chat) was moved by Peters to Cossypha, but Howard & Moore moved it back by 1991, while IOC kept it in Cossypha, erroneously as turned out in 2021.

After phylogenetic analysis, in 2010, George Sangster (et al.) convinced the authorities to reinstate the Larvivora genus for six Asian Luscinia robins, and Calliope for the Firethroat, Blackthroat and two (three) Rubythroats, that in the 1950s also were in the Luscinia genus, and Tarsiger for another five bush robins (all were moved to Erithacus by Peters in 1964, and then placed in Luscinia in 2003 by H&M).

The rufous thrushes, also known as flycatcher-thrushes of the African genus Stizorhina remained in the thrush family Turdidae (Myadestinae).

So, the Erithacus genus ended with one species, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), with the Nightingale (Erithacus megarhynchos), the Nightingale Thrush (Erithacus luscinia) and the Bluethroat (Erithacus svecicus) at H&M 1994 changing to Luscinia megarhynchos, Luscinia luscinia and Luscinia svecica (done so elsewhere already in the 1950s). In the 1980 Howard and Moore check list, there were 25 species in the genus Erithacus (with 2 becoming Tarsiger down to 23 in 1990, with the above 3 becoming Luscinia, 1 Stiphrornis and 5 Sheppardia down to 14 in 1994, then another 3 becoming Luscinia, 6 Larvivora and 4 Calliope down to 1 in 2003). By 1994, both the Japanese and Riukiu Robins remained Erithacus, changed to Luscinia in 2003, but adopted the Larivivora genus by 2013, when the White-bellied Redstart adopted the Luscinia label, that counted 18 species in 2003, but only 4 in 2013. Luscinia, Tarsiger and Larivivora are now in the Saxicolinae subfamily, and Erithacus, Stiphrornis and Sheppardia are in the Cossyphinae subfamily.

The Siberian Rubythroat Calliope calliope, at H&M from 2003 till 2013 a Luscinia, from 1964 an Erithacus, before 1964 a Luscinia, had been a Calliope at AOU earlier from 1930 to 1950, then called the Greater Kamchatka Nightingale.

As the Cossypha genus appeared to be polyphyletic, three species, the mid-African Ground Robins and the Cape Robin-Chat, are put in Caffrornis at Lynx, but Dessonornis has priority, though the correct spelling might be Bessonornis.  Dessonornis is used at BirdLife for the Cossypha humeralis, and Oreocossypha for the Cossypha isabellae.

Luscinia also is in danger because of insufficient support for the monophyly of this genus. BirdLife reactivated Cyanecula svecica (superseded by Cyanosylvia early in the previous century) for the Bluethroat, but didn’t change Hodgsonius phaenicuroides (Asian white-bellied redstart) into Luscinia as most other authorities recently did.

To be continued. . .

 

 

 

selected post-war taxons

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

< 1964

Voous 1977

Grzimek 1970

Peters 1964

H&M 1980

H&M 1990

H&M 1991

Clements 1991

H&M 2003

H&M 2013

IOC 2020

IOC 2020

HBW/BirdLife

subfamilies

Amsterdam

Zürich

Cambridge MA

Oxford England

 

Vista California

 

 

Turdidae

Turdidae

Turdidae

Muscicapidae (Turdinae)               Muscicapidae (Turdinae)

Turdidae

Turdidae

Muscicapidae

Musc. (Saxicolinae)

Muscicapidae (Cossyphinae)

 

 

 

 

Cossypha

Dryocichloides

Dryocichloides

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha archeri

Archer's Ground Robin

Dessonornis

 

 

 

 

Cossypha

Cossypha

Dryocichloides

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha anomala

Olive-flanked Ground Robin

Dessonornis

 

 

 

 

Cossypha

Dryocichloides

Dryocichloides

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha isabellae

Mountain Robin-Chat

Oreocossypha

Phoenicurinae

Cossypha

 

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha caffra

Cape Robin-Chat

Dessonornis

 

 

 

 

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha humeralis

White-throated Robin-Chat

 

 

Cossypha

 

 

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha heuglini

White-browed Robin-Chat

 

 

 

 

 

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha semirufa

Rüppell's Robin-Chat

 

 

 

 

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha niveicapilla

Snowy-crowned Robin-Chat

 

 

 

 

 

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha albicapillus

White-crowned Robin-Chat

 

 

 

 

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha dichroa

Chorister Robin-Chat

 

 

 

 

 

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha heinrichi

White-headed Robin-Chat

 

 

 

 

 

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha natalensis

Red-capped Robin-Chat

 

 

 

 

 

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha cyanocampter

Blue-shouldered Robin-Chat

 

 

 

 

 

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossyph(icul)a

Cossyph(icul)a

Cossyphicula

Cossyphicula roberti

White-bellied Robin-Chat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

> (icul) in 1994

> (icul) in 2000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Xenocopsychus

 

Cossypha

Cossypha

Cossypha

Xenocopsychus

Xenocopsychus

Xenocopsychus

Xenocopsychus

Cossypha ansorgei

Angolan Cave Chat

 

 

 

 

Pogonocichla

Pogonocichla

Pogonocichla

Pogonocichla

Pogonocichla

Pogonocichla

Pogonocichla

Pogonocichla stellata

White-starred Robin

 

 

 

 

 

Pogonocichla

Pogonocichla

Pogonocichla

Swynnertonia

Swynnertonia

Swynnertonia

Swynnertonia swynnertoni

Swynnerton's Robin

 

Phoenicurinae

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus rubecula

European Robin

 

 

 

 

 

Cossypha

Dryocichloides

Dryocichloides

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia bocagei

Bocage's Akalat

 

 

 

 

 

 

D. insulana

D. insulana

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia cyornithopsis

Lowland Akalat

 

 

 

 

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia aequatorialis

Equatorial Akalat

 

 

 

 

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia sharpei

Sharpe's Akalat

 

 

 

 

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia gunningi

East Coast Akalat

 

 

 

 

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia gabela

Gabela Akalat

 

 

 

 

 

Alethe montana

Dryocichloides

Dryocichloides

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia montana

Usambara Akalat

 

 

 

 

 

Alethe lowei

Dryocichloides

Dryocichloides

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia

Sheppardia lowei

Iringa Akalat

 

 

 

 

 

Cossypha

Dryocichloides

Dryocichloides

Sheppardia

Cossypha

Cossypha

Sheppardia

Cossypha polioptera

Grey-winged Robin-Chat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sheppardia aurantiithorax

Rubeho Akalat

 

 

 

 

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Stiphrornis

Stiphrornis

Stiphrornis

Stiphrornis erythrothorax

Forest Robin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stiphrornis sanghensis

 

 

 

Cichladusa

Cichladusa

Cichladusa

Cichladusa

Cichladusa

Cichladusa

Cichladusa

Cichladusa

Palm Thrush

 

 

 

subfamilies

< 1964

Voous 1977

Grzimek 1970

Peters 1964

H&M 1980

H&M 1990

H&M 1991

Clements 1991

H&M 2003

H&M 2013

IOC 2020

IOC 2020

Turdidae

Turdidae

Turdidae

Muscicapidae (Turdinae)               Muscicapidae (Turdinae)

Turdidae

Turdidae

Muscicapidae

Musc. (Saxicolinae)

Muscicapidae (Saxicolinae)

 

 

Luscinia

Luscinia

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Luscinia

Luscinia sibilans

Larvivora sibilans

Rufous-tailed Robin

 

 

 

Erithacus

Luscinia

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Luscinia akahige

Larvivora akahige

Japanese Robin

 

 

Luscinia

Erithacus

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Luscinia komadori

Larvivora komadori

Ryukyu Robin

 

 

 

Luscinia

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Luscinia

Luscinia brunnea

Larvivora brunnea

Indian Blue Robin

 

 

Luscinia

Luscinia

Luscinia

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Luscinia

Luscinia cyane

Larvivora cyane

Siberian Blue Robin

 

 

 

Luscinia

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Luscinia

Luscinia ruficeps

Larvivora ruficeps

Rufous-headed Robin

 

 

Irania

Irania

 

Irania

Irania

Irania

Irania

Irania

Irania gutturalis

Irania gutturalis

White-throated Robin

 

Phoenicurinae

Luscinia

Luscinia

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Luscinia

Luscinia

Luscinia luscinia

Luscinia luscinia

Thrush Nightingale

 

Phoenicurinae

Luscinia

Luscinia

Luscinia

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Luscinia

Luscinia

Luscinia

Luscinia megarhynchos

Common Nightingale

 

Phoenicurinae

 

Luscinia

Luscinia

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Luscinia

Luscinia

Luscinia svecica

Luscinia svecica

Bluethroat

Cyanecula

 

 

Hodgsonius

 

Hodgsonius

Hodgsonius

Hodgsonius

Hodgsonius

Hodgsonius

Hodgsonius

Luscinia phaenicuroides

White-bellied Redstart

 

 

 

Luscinia

Luscinia

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Luscinia

Luscinia pectardens

Calliope pectardens

Firethroat

 

 

 

Luscinia

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Luscinia

Luscinia obscura

Calliope obscura

Blackthroat

 

 

Luscinia

Luscinia

Luscinia

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Luscinia

Luscinia pectoralis

Calliope pectoralis

Himalayan Rubythroat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Calliope tschebaiewi

Chinese Rubythroat

 

Phoenicurinae

Luscinia

Luscinia

Luscinia

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Luscinia

Luscinia calliope

Calliope calliope

Siberian Rubythroat

 

 

 

Tarsiger

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Tarsiger

Luscinia indica

Tarsiger indicus

White-browed Bush Robin

 

 

Ianthia

 

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Tarsiger

Luscinia johnstoniae

Tarsiger johnstoniae

Collared Bush Robin

 

 

 

Tarsiger

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Tarsiger

Tarsiger

Tarsiger

Luscinia chrysaea

Tarsiger chrysaeus

Golden Bush Robin

 

Phoenicurinae

Tarsiger

Tarsiger

Tarsiger

Erithacus

Erithacus

Tarsiger

Tarsiger

Tarsiger

Luscinia cyanura

Tarsiger cyanurus

Red-flanked Bluetail

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tarsiger rufilatus

Himalayan Bluetail

 

 

Ianthia

Tarsiger

 

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Erithacus

Tarsiger

Luscinia hyperythra

Tarsiger hyperythrus

Rufous-breasted Bush Robin

 

 

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Monticola semirufus

Pinarornis

Pinarornis

Pinarornis

Pinarornis

Pinarornis

Pinarornis

Pinarornis

> Turdidae (IOC 2021)

Phoenicurinae

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

King, Dickinson and Woodcock 1975:

Phoenicurinae

Chaimarrornis

Chaimarrornis

Chaimarrornis

Chaimarrornis

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Chaimarrornis

Chaimarrornis

Chaimarrornis

Phoenicurus leucocephalus

Thamnolaea leucocephala

 

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Adelura

Phoenicurus erythronotus, caeruleocephalus, frontalis, schisticeps

Rhyacornis

Rhyacornis

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Phoenicurus

Rhyacornis

Rhyacornis

Rhyacornis

Phoenicurus fuliginosus

Rhyacornis

Rhyacornis

Rhyacornis

Rhyacornis

Rhyacornis

Rhyacornis

Rhyacornis

Rhyacornis

Phoenicurus bicolor

Enicurinae

Enicurus

Enicurus

Enicurus

Enicurus

Enicurus

Enicurus

Enicurus

Enicurus

Enicurus

Enicurus

Cinclidium

Cinclidium

Cinclidium

Cinclidium

Cinclidium

Cinclidium

Cinclidium

Cinclidium

Cinclidium

Cinclidium

Cinclidium

Cinclidium

Cinclidium

Myiomela

Saxicolinae

Saxicola

Saxicola

Saxicola

Saxicola

Saxicola

Saxicola

Saxicola

Saxicola

Saxicola

Saxicola

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Myrmecocichla

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

T. coronata

T. coronata

 

 

Thamnolaea coronata

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Myrmecocichla

Thamnolaea

Thamnolaea

Monticola semirufus

Pentholaea

Myrmecocichla

Myrmecocichla

Myrmecocichla

Myrmecocichla

Myrmecocichla

Myrmecocichla

Myrmecocichla

Myrmecocichla

Myrmecocichla

Pentholaea

Myrmecocichla

Myrmecocichla

Myrmecocichla

Myrmecocichla

Myrmecocichla

Myrmecocichla

Myrmecocichla

Oenanthe albifrons

Saxicolinae

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Myrmecocichla monticola

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Oenanthe

Saxicola

Saxicola

Campicoloides

Campicoloides bifasciata

 

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Emarginata sinuata, schlegelii, tractrac

 

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Oenanthe familiaris, fusca, dubia, melanura, scotocerca

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Cercomela

Pinarochroa sordida

 

 

 

 

 

subfamilies

< 1964

Voous 1977

Grzimek 1970

Peters 1964

H&M 1980

H&M 1990

H&M 1991

Clements 1991

H&M 2003

H&M 2013

IOC 2020

IOC 2020

HBW/BirdLife

Turdidae

Turdidae

Turdidae

Muscicapidae (Turdinae)               Muscicapidae (Turdinae)

Turdidae

Turdidae

Muscicapidae

Musc. (Saxicolinae)

Muscicapidae (Muscicapinae)

Clements 2011

 

 

Erythropygia

Erythropygia

Erythropygia

Erythropygia

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas

Agrobates

Cercotrichas

Erythropygia

Erythropygia

Erythropygia

Erythropygia

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas galactotes

Rufous-tailed Scrub Robin

Cercotrichas

Erythropygia

Erythropygia

Erythropygia

Erythropygia

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas quadrivirgata

Bearded Scrub Robin

Tychaedon

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas

Cercotrichas podobe

Black Scrub Robin

Phoenicurinae

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Trichixos

Trichixos

Trichixos

Copsychus pyrropygus

Saxicoloides

Saxicoloides

Saxicoloides

Saxicoloides

Saxicoloides

Saxicoloides

Saxicoloides

Saxicoloides

Saxicoloides

Copsychus fulicatus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Copsychus

Kittacincla

Copsychus malabaricus, luzoniensis, niger, cebuensis

 

 

Clements 1974

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muscicapidae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Namibornis

Namibornis

Namibornis

Namibornis

Namibornis

Namibornis

Namibornis

Namibornis

 

 

 

 

Voous 1977

H&M 1991

Clements 1991

H&M 2003

H&M 2013, Clements 2011

Turdidae

Turdidae

Turdidae

Musc. (Saxicolinae)

Muscicapidae (Saxicolinae)

Monticola

Monticola

Monticola

Monticola

Monticola

Monticola

Monticola

Monticola

Monticola

Monticola

Rock Thrush

Pseudocossyphus

Pseudocossyphus

Pseudocossyphus

Pseudocossyphus

Pseudocossyphus

Pseudocossyphus

Monticola

 

H&M 1991

Clements 1991

H&M 2003

H&M 2013, Clements 2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turdidae

Turdidae

Turdidae

Muscicapidae (Muscicapinae)

 

Alethe

Alethe

Alethe

Alethe

Alethe diademata

Alethe diademata

Alethe diademata

Alethe diademata

Alethe castanea

Alethe castanea

 

Alethe castanea

 

Alethe castanea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H&M 2013, Clements 2018

 

 

> (Pseud) in 2011

 

Muscicapidae (Cossyphinae)

Pseudalethe

Alethe

Alethe

Alethe

Alethe

(Pseud)alethe

Alethe

Chamaetylas poliophrys, poliocephala, fuelleborni, choloensis

subfamilies

< 1964

Voous 1977

Grzimek 1970

Peters 1964

H&M 1980

H&M 1990

H&M 1991

Clements 1991

H&M 2003

H&M 2013, Clements 2011

Clements 2017

Turdidae

Turdidae

Turdidae

Muscicapidae (Turdinae)               Muscicapidae (Turdinae)

Turdidae

Turdidae

Turdidae

Turdidae

Muscicapidae (Saxicolinae)

Muscicapidae (Niltavinae)

Myiophoneinae

Myiophoneus

Myiophoneus

Myiophoneus

Myiophoneus

Myiophoneus

Myiophoneus

Myiophoneus

Myophonus

Myophonus

Myophonus

Whistling Thrush

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Shortwing

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Heinrichia

Heinrichia

Heinrichia

Heinrichia

Heinrichia calligyna

Great Shortwing

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Heteroxenicus stellata

Gould's Shortwing

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx

Brachypteryx major, albiventris

Brachypteryx major, albiventris

Blue Robin

 

 

 

 

Clements 1974

Grzimek 1970

Peters 1964

H&M 1980

H&M 1990/1991

Clements 1981

Clements 1991

H&M 2003

H&M 2013, Clements 2011

Turdidae

Muscicapidae (Turdinae)               Muscicapidae (Turdinae)

Turdidae

Turdidae

Muscicapidae

Turdidae

Turdidae (Turdinae)

Cochoaninae

Cochoa

Cochoa

Cochoa

Cochoa

Cochoa

Cochoa

Cochoa

Cochoa

Cochoa

Cochoa

 

 

 

< 1964

Clements 1974

Grzimek 1970

Peters 1964

H&M 1980

H&M 1990/1991

Clements 1981

Clements 1991

H&M 2003

H&M 2013, Clements 2018

Saxicolinae

Turdidae

Muscicapidae (Turdinae)               Muscicapidae (Turdinae)

Turdidae

Turdidae

Muscicapidae

Musc. (Saxicolinae)

Turdidae (Myadestinae)

Grandala

Grandala

Grandala

Grandala

Grandala

Grandala

Grandala

Grandala

Grandala

Grandala coelicolor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clements 1974

 

Peters 1964

H&M 1980

H&M 1990/1991

Clements 1981

Clements 1991

H&M 2003, Clem. 2011

H&M 2013, Clements 2013

 

 

 

Muscicapidae

 

Muscicapidae (Timaliinae)

Timaliidae

Timaliidae

Muscicapidae

incert. sedis, Sylviidae

Sylviidae

 

 

 

 

 

Horizorhinus dohrni

Horizorhinus dohrni

Horizorhinus

Horizorhinus

Horizorhinus

Horizorhinus dohrni

Sylvia dohrni

 

 

 

 

Dohrn's Flycatcher

Dohrn's Thrush-Babbler

Thrush-Babbler

Thrush-Babbler

Flycatcher

Thrush-Babbler

Dohrn's Warbler

 

 

 

 

 

Muscicapidae

 

Muscicapidae (Sylviinae)

Sylviidae

Sylviidae

Sylviidae

Sylviidae

Sylviidae

 

 

 

 

 

Chloropeta natalensis, similis

Chloropeta natalensis, similis

Chloropeta

Chloropeta

Chloropeta

Chloropeta

Iduna natalensis, similis

 

 

 

 

 

Sylviidae

Muscicapidae (Sylviinae)

Sylviidae

Sylviidae

Sylviidae

Sylviidae

Sylviidae

 

 

 

 

 

Chloropeta gracilirostris

Chloropeta gracilirostris

Chloropeta

Chloropeta