Neotropical

global

Antarctica

NT

as

Antarctica

NT endemics

as

comments

South America up to central Mexico

number of

number of

number of

share of

endemics

number of

share of

excluding birds exotic for this area

species

species

species

global

species

global

RHEIDAE

RHEAS

2

2

2

<all>

2

<all>

Rhea also called Nandu

TINAMIDAE

TINAMOUS

3

47

47

<all>

47

<all>

ANHIMIDAE

SCREAMERS

6

3

3

<all>

3

<all>

ANATIDAE

DUCKS, GEESE, SWANS

8

157

45

29%

33

21%

CRACIDAE

GUANS

10

54

54

<all>

54

<all>

includes Curassows

ODONTOPHORIDAE

NEW WORLD QUAILS

12

33

29

88%

26

79%

new American family: separated from Phasianidae

PHASIANIDAE

PARTRIDGES, PHEASANTS, GROUSE

13

177

2

1%

1

1%

Wild Turkey NA/Mexico; Ocellated Turkey endemic in Mexico/Guatemala

PHOENICOPTERIDAE

FLAMINGOS

14

6

4

2/3

3

50%

PODICIPEDIDAE

GREBES

15

19

9

47%

8

42%

COLUMBIDAE

PIGEONS

16

304

69

23%

57

19%

EURYPYGIDAE

SUNBITTERN

19

1

1

<all>

1

<all>

PHAETHONTIDAE

TROPICBIRDS

21

3

2

2/3

STEATORNITHIDAE

OILBIRD

22

1

1

<all>

1

<all>

NYCTIBIIDAE

POTOOS

24

7

7

<all>

7

<all>

CAPRIMULGIDAE

NIGHTJARS

25

90

45

50%

38

42%

includes Nighthawks, Poorwills

APODIDAE

SWIFTS

27

99

32

32%

28

28%

TROCHILIDAE

HUMMINGBIRDS

28

335

335

<all>

319

95%

highest number of non-passerines in Neotropical; in 2004 Eurotrochilus fossils were found in Germany

OPISTHOCOMIDAE

HOATZIN

29

1

1

<all>

1

<all>

Hoatzin fossils were found in Africa and Europe

CUCULIDAE

CUCKOOS

30

139

32

23%

24

17%

includes Roadrunner

RALLIDAE

RAILS AND COOTS

31

127

50

39%

43

34%

includes Wood Rails, Crakes; incl. Inaccessible Island Rail, colonized from South America c. 1.5 million years ago, in 2018 proposed to be nested within the genus Laterallus; incl. Tristan Moorhen

HELIORNITHIDAE

FINFOOTS

33

3

1

1/3

1

1/3

Sungrebe

PSOPHIIDAE

TRUMPETERS

34

3

3

<all>

3

<all>

ARAMIDAE

LIMPKIN

35

1

1

<all>

SPHENISCIDAE

PENGUINS

40

16

3

6

38%

3

6

38%

OCEANITIDAE

AUSTRAL STORM-PETRELS

41

8

1

5

63%

1

13%

DIOMEDEIDAE

ALBATROSSES

42

13

11

85%

1

8%

HYDROBATIDAE

NORTHERN STORM-PETRELS

43

14

6

43%

1

7%

PROCELLARIIDAE

PETRELS AND SHEARWATERS

44

84

3

33

39%

2

6

7%

Diving Petrels (Pelecanoides) formerly in Pelecanoididae; includes Prions, Southern Fulmar; Trindade Petrel endemic breeder in Brazilian Trindade Island

CICONIIDAE

STORKS

45

19

4

21%

2

11%

includes Jabiru

PELECANIDAE

PELICANS

46

8

2

1/4

1

1/8

ARDEIDAE

HERONS

49

62

23

37%

11

18%

includes Bitterns, Egrets; Cattle Egret in Guyana in late 19th century introduced? to America

THRESKIORNITHIDAE

IBISES AND SPOONBILLS

50

34

12

35%

9

26%

for taxonomic 'ibis', see Ardeidae (Bubulcus ibis: Cattle Egret)

FREGATIDAE

FRIGATEBIRDS

51

5

3

3/5

Ascension Island Frigatebird doesn't occur close to South American continent; Magnificent Frigatebird occurs both at West and East Coasts; Lesser and Geat Frigatebird breed on Brazilian Trindad Island, also in Indian and Pacific Ocean

SULIDAE

GANNETS AND BOOBIES

52

10

5

50%

2

1/5

PHALACROCORACIDAE

CORMORANTS

53

30

6

20%

4

13%

includes Rock Shag

ANHINGIDAE

DARTERS

54

4

1

1/4

BURHINIDAE

THICK-KNEES

55

9

2

22%

2

22%

CHIONIDAE

SHEATHBILLS AND MAGELLANIC PLOVER

56

3

2

2

2/3

1

1

1/3

up to 1980s mostly called: Chionididae; Magellanic Plover (Pluvianellus socialis) formerly in Charadriidae

HAEMATOPODIDAE

OYSTERCATCHERS AND IBISBILL

58

12

3

25%

2

17%

RECURVIROSTRIDAE

STILTS AND AVOCETS

59

7

2

29%

1

14%

CHARADRIIDAE

PLOVERS AND LAPWINGS

60

67

17

25%

9

13%

includes Killdeer; Rufous-chested Dotterel

THINOCORIDAE

SEEDSNIPES

62

4

4

<all>

4

<all>

endemic to Andes

ROSTRATULIDAE

PAINTED-SNIPE

63

3

1

1/3

1

1/3

JACANIDAE

JACANAS

64

8

2

1/4

2

1/4

SCOLOPACIDAE

SANDPIPERS

65

90

36

40%

7

8%

includes Sanderling, Turnstone, Knot, Surfbird, Snipe, Dowitcher, Godwit, Curlew, Whimbrel, Phalarope, Yellowlegs, Willet

STERCORARIIDAE

SKUAS OR JAEGERS

70

7

2

6

86%

1

1/7

LARIDAE

GULLS AND TERNS

71

99

3

42

42%

14

14%

incl. Black Skimmer, formerly in Rynchopidae; incl. Noddy

CATHARTIDAE

NEW WORLD VULTURES

72

7

6

86%

4

4/7

includes Andean Condor

PANDIONIDAE

OSPREY

74

1

1

<all>

worldwide distrbution

ACCIPITRIDAE

KITES, HAWKS AND EAGLES

75

240

64

27%

47

20%

TYTONIDAE

BARN OWLS

76

19

2

11%

1

5%

Ashy-faced Owl endemic to Hispaniola, formerly conspecific with American Barn Owl

STRIGIDAE

OWLS

77

195

65

33%

51

26%

TROGONIDAE

TROGONS

80

44

29

66%

28

64%

includes Quetzal; Elegant Trogon partly in Nearctic

GALBULIDAE

JACAMARS

84

18

18

<all>

18

<all>

BUCCONIDAE

PUFFBIRDS

85

36

36

<all>

36

<all>

includes Monklet, Nunbirds and Nunlets

PICIDAE

WOODPECKERS

87

216

143

66%

102

47%

RAMPHASTIDAE

TOUCANS AND BARBETS

88

121

51

42%

51

42%

Barbets formerly (Howard and Moore), and elsewhere in Capitonidae; Semnornis (Toucan Barbet) elsewhere in Semnornithidae family; all Neotopical Toucans and Barbets endemic; includes Aracaris

TODIDAE

TODIES

92

5

5

<all>

5

<all>

endemic in Geater Antilles

MOMOTIDAE

MOTMOTS

93

13

13

<all>

13

<all>

ALCEDINIDAE

KINGFISHERS

94

90

6

7%

3

3%

CARIAMIDAE

SERIEMAS

95

2

2

<all>

2

<all>

fossils of the massive Diatryma, as big as the largest moas, have been found in NA and Europe

FALCONIDAE

FALCONS AND CARACARAS

96

63

25

40%

20

32%

PSITTACIDAE

AFRICAN AND NEW WORLD PARROTS

99

165

155

94%

155

94%

Thick-billed Parrot up to 1930s in USA

SAPAYOIDAE

SAPAYOA

106

1

1

<all>

1

<all>

related to Old World Eurylaimydae; formerly in Pipridae

PIPRIDAE

MANAKINS

107

48

48

<all>

48

<all>

pre-1990 separation from Tyrannidae not generally adopted; not to be confused with African and Australasian Mannikins (Estrildidae)

COTINGIDAE

COTINGAS

108

65

65

<all>

65

<all>

Phytotoma plantcutters previously in their own family, Phytotomidae; includes Fruitcrows, Berryeaters, Plantcutters, Bellbirds, Umbrellabirds, Cock-of-the-Rock; the white bellbird makes the loudest call ever recorded for birds, reaching 125 dB

OXYRUNCIDAE

SHARPBILL

109

1

1

<all>

1

<all>

separation from Tityras not generally adopted; might be added to Onychorhynchidae

ONYCHORHYNCHIDAE

ROYAL FLYCATCHERS AND ALLIES

110

5

5

<all>

5

<all>

separation from Tyrannidae not generally adopted

TITYRIDAE

TITYRAS

111

35

35

<all>

35

<all>

formerly spread over the families Tyrannidae, Pipridae and Cotingidae; sometimes including Oxyruncus (Sharpbill)

PLATYRINCHIDAE

SPADEBILLS AND ALLIES

112

9

9

<all>

9

<all>

separation from Tyrannidae not generally adopted; Kinglet Calyptura formerly in Cotingidae; Cinnamon Tyrant from Pipridae

PIPRITIDAE

PIPRITES

113

3

3

<all>

3

<all>

new family: formerly in Pipridae

TACHURISIDAE

RUSH TYRANT

114

1

1

<all>

1

<all>

as above

PIPROMORPHIDAE

FLATBILLS

115

101

101

<all>

101

<all>

new family: specific Flatbills, Flycatchers, Tyrants and Tyrannulets separated from Tyrannidae (already during the oligocene: 33.9 to 23 million years ago); contains Antpipits

TYRANNIDAE

TYRANT-FLYCATCHERS

116

305

305

<all>

273

90%

Flycatchers, Pewees, Kingbirds, Phoebes, Kiskadees, endemic to Americas; Tyrannulets, Chat Flycatchers, several Tyrants, Attilas, Elaenias, Negritos, Flatbills, Monjitas endemic to Neotropical

THAMNOPHILIDAE

ANTBIRDS

117

232

232

<all>

232

<all>

removed from Formicariidae, leaving behind the ant-thrushes; includes Antshrikes, Antwrens, Antvireos, Bushbirds, Antcatchers, (AOS 2020) Stipplethroat, Bare-eyes, Fire-eyes

MELANOPAREIIDAE

CRESCENT-CHESTS

118

4

4

<all>

4

<all>

Melanopareia; formerly placed in Rhinocryptidae

CONOPOPHAGIDAE

GNATEATERS

119

10

10

<all>

10

<all>

includes Pittasoma Black- and Rufous-crowned Antpitta, from Thamnophilidae

GRALLARIIDAE

ANTPITTAS

120

53

53

<all>

53

<all>

removed from Thamnophilidae; not to be confused with former family GRALLINIDAE (Australian Magpie Larks)

RHINOCRYPTIDAE

TAPACULOS

121

57

57

<all>

57

<all>

FORMICARIIDAE

ANT-THRUSHES

122

12

12

<all>

12

<all>

Formicarius and Chamaeza; formerly called Antbirds

SCLERURIDAE

LEAFTOSSERS

123

17

17

<all>

17

<all>

incl. Miners and Leafscrapers, removed from Furnariidae

DENDROCOLAPTIDAE

WOODCREEPERS

124

51

51

<all>

51

<all>

incl. Scythebills, Woodcreepers, Woodhewer

FURNARIIDAE

HORNEROS, FOLIAGE-GLEANERS AND SPINETAILS

125

228

228

<all>

228

<all>

earlier called Ovenbirds, incl. Earthcreepers, Treehunters, Treerunners, Streamcreeper, Reedhaunter, Woodhaunter, Groundcreeper, Bushrunner, Firewood-gatherer, Thornbirds, not Ovenbird (Parulidae); several species moved to Scleruridae, Dendrocolaptidae, Parulidae

VIREONIDAE

SHRIKE-BABBLERS, ERPORNIS AND VIREOS

151

62

52

84%

39

63%

includes Peppershrikes, Greenlets and Vireos (Shrike-babblers, Erpornis endemic to Oriental region); Vireolaniidae and Cyclarhiidae now inluded

LANIIDAE

SHRIKES

163

34

1

3%

Loggerhead Shrike down to South Mexico

CORVIDAE

CROWS AND JAYS

164

125

43

34%

36

29%

PEUCEDRAMIDAE

PEUCEDRAMUS (OLIVE WARBLER)

178

1

1

<all>

formerly in Parulidae, now found to be closely related to Old Word Accentors (near-endemic to Palearctic) in the Prunellidae family

PASSERIDAE

SPARROWS, SNOWFINCHES AND ALLIES (introduced)

182

38

1

3%

House Sparrow introduced to NT

MOTACILLIDAE

WAGTAILS AND PIPITS

183

67

10

15%

8

12%

FRINGILLIDAE

FINCHES, EUPHONIAS + HAWAIIAN HONEYCREEPERS

184

198

58

29%

48

24%

Euphonia, Chlorophonia endemic to NT, formerly in Emberizidae

CALCARIIDAE

LONGSPURS

185

6

2

1/3

split off from Emberizidae, diverged from a common ancestor around 4.26.2 million years ago; includes Snow Bunting

RHODINOCICHLIDAE

THRUSH TANAGER

186

1

1

<all>

1

<all>

new family: Rhodinocichla split off from Emberizidae

PASSERELLIDAE

NEW WORLD SPARROWS AND ALLIES

188

127

117

92%

85

67%

split off from Emberizidae; incl. Towhees, Juncos, Lark Bunting, Brush Finches, Tanager Finches

PHAENICOPHILIDAE

WARBLER TANAGERS

189

9

9

<all>

9

<all>

Phaenicophilus formerly in Emberizidae; Microligea and Xenoligea from Parulidae; AOS: Phaenocophildae by 2017: Hispaniolan Tanagers

ZELEDONIIDAE

WREN-THRUSH AND ALLIES

190

3

3

<all>

3

<all>

new family: formerly in Parulidae; Zeledonia (Wren-thrush) occurs in Costa Rica, Panama

PARULIDAE

NEW WORLD WOOD WARBLERS

191

106

106

<all>

58

55%

incl. American Redstart, Ovenbird, Waterthrush, Whitestart, Yellowthroat; actually none of the species called 'Wood Warbler'; various species moved to Furnariidae, Peucedramidae, Phaenicophilidae, Zeledoniidae, Icteridae, Cardinalidae and Thraupidae

ICTERIDAE

NEW WORLD BLACKBIRDS

192

104

100

96%

84

81%

incl. Meadowlarks, Troupials, (American) Orioles, Grackles, Cowbirds, Marshbirds; Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) formerly in Parulidae

CALYPTOPHILIDAE

CHAT TANAGERS

193

2

2

<all>

2

<all>

new family, not to be confused with Calyptomenidae (Broadbills): split off from Emberizidae; endemic to Hispaniola

MITROSPINGIDAE

ABERRANT TANAGERS

194

4

4

<all>

4

<all>

new family: split off from Emberizidae (Thraupinae)

CARDINALIDAE

CARDINALS, GROSBEAKS AND ALLIES

195

48

48

<all>

34

71%

earlier in Emberizidae; includes (New World) Buntings, (Ant) Tanagers, Dickcissel, Seedeaters, Chats (Granatellus, formerly in Parulidae). Pyrrhuloxia (now a 'Cardinalis')

THRAUPIDAE

TANAGERS

196

371

371

<all>

370

99,7%

earlier in Emberizidae; incl. Orangequit and Grassquits; 3 endemic species, blown away to Tristan da Cunha at a distance of over 3,500 km 3~5 million years ago; includes Galapagos Finches, other 'Finches', Honeycreepers (Hawaiian Honeycreepers under Fringillidae)

PARIDAE

TITS, CHICKADEES

199

59

5

8%

Titmouse (Baeolophus) and Chickadee (Poecile) formerly regarded as a (Palearctic) Parus species, to which European Great Tit still belongs

REMIZIDAE

PENDULINE TITS

200

10

1

10%

ALAUDIDAE

LARKS

202

93

1

1%

DONACOBIIDAE

DONACOBIUS

207

1

1

<all>

1

<all>

New family: Donacobius formerly in Troglodytidae

HIRUNDINIDAE

SWALLOWS

211

84

34

40%

25

30%

includes Martins

AEGITHALIDAE

LONG-TAILED TITS

215

10

1

10%

REGULIDAE

GOLDCRESTS OR KINGLETS

221

6

2

1/3

new family: earlier in Sylviidae

DULIDAE

PALMCHAT

222

1

1

<all>

1

<all>

endemic to Hispaniola

BOMBYCILLIDAE

WAXWINGS

223

3

1

1/3

PTILIOGONATIDAE

SILKY-FLYCATCHERS

225

4

4

<all>

3

3/4

CERTHIIDAE

TREECREEPERS

227

9

1

11%

SITTIDAE

NUTHATCHES, SALPORNISES AND WALLCREEPER

228

28

3

11%

TROGLODYTIDAE

WRENS

229

82

79

96%

71

87%

POLIOPTILIDAE

GNATCATCHERS

230

15

15

<all>

14

93%

Microbates and Ramphocaenus: Gnatwrens

MIMIDAE

MOCKINGBIRDS, THRASHERS

232

34

33

97%

24

71%

includes Catbirds, Tremblers

STURNIDAE

STARLINGS (introduced)

233

111

1

1%

Common Starling introduced to Jamaica and Argentina; Bahamas and Cuba were colonised naturally from the USA

CINCLIDAE

DIPPERS

234

5

3

3/5

1

1/5

TURDIDAE

THRUSHES

236

156

66

42%

55

35%

includes Veery, Solitaire, Bluebird, American Robin; New World thrushes probably evolved after invasions from the Old World; incl. Tristan Trush, endemic to Tristan da Cunha, blown away from South America

50% of families

Aves in Neotropical

119 families

6718

4049

60%

3506

87%

Aves in Neotropical

63% of families

non-passerines

63 families

3463

14

1630

47%

6

1324

81%

non-passerines

41% of families

passerines

56 families

3255

2419

74%

2182

90%

passerines

global

Aves

10027

4049

40%

41 endemic families

17%

Aves in Neotropical

<all>

global

non-passerines

4021

1630

41%

15 endemic families

15%

non-passerines

global

passerines

6006

2419

40%

26 endemic families

19%

passerines

Neotropical

global

Antarctica

NT

as

Antarctica

NT endemics

as

comments

South America up to central Mexico

number of

number of

number of

share of

endemics

number of

share of

species

species

species

global

species

global

Source: The Howard and Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world, 2013~2014

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