Nearctic

global

NA

as

NA endemics

as

comments

North America down to central Mexico

number of

number of

share of

number of

share of

excluding birds exotic for this area

species

species

global

species

global species

ANATIDAE

DUCKS, GEESE, SWANS

8

157

42

27%

11

7%

highest number of non-passerines in Nearctic; includes Goldeneye

ODONTOPHORIDAE

NEW WORLD QUAILS

12

33

5

15%

2

6%

new American family: separated from Phasianidae

PHASIANIDAE

PARTRIDGES, PHEASANTS, GROUSE

13

177

14

8%

10

6%

includes Turkey; Grouse sometimes (BTO) in its own family: Tetraonidae

PHOENICOPTERIDAE

FLAMINGOS

14

54

1

2%

Florida population only in 2018 recognized to be native instead of escaped from captivity

PODICIPEDIDAE

GREBES

15

19

5

26%

1

5%

COLUMBIDAE

PIGEONS

16

304

12

4%

PHAETHONTIDAE

TROPICBIRDS

21

3

1

1/3

CAPRIMULGIDAE

NIGHTJARS

25

90

7

8%

includes Nighthawks, Poorwills

APODIDAE

SWIFTS

27

99

5

5%

TROCHILIDAE

HUMMINGBIRDS

28

335

16

5%

30 milion year old hummingbird fossils have been discovered in Germany; the next-oldest, modern hummingbird fossils are from South America and are only about one million years old

CUCULIDAE

CUCKOOS

30

139

8

6%

includes Roadrunner

RALLIDAE

RAILS AND COOTS

31

127

9

7%

2

2%

A few genera appear to have specialized and radiated in the New World, some of which (e.g. Rallus and Fulica) have reinvaded the Old World

ARAMIDAE

LIMPKIN

35

1

1

<all>

GRUIDAE

CRANES

36

15

2

13%

1

7%

GAVIIDAE

DIVERS OR LOONS

39

5

4

4/5

1

1/5

DIOMEDEIDAE

ALBATROSSES

42

13

2

15%

HYDROBATIDAE

NORTHERN STORM-PETRELS

43

14

7

50%

1

7%

Townsend's and Ainley's Storm-petrels upgraded to species in 2016 (AOS)

PROCELLARIIDAE

PETRELS AND SHEARWATERS

44

84

9

11%

1

1%

includes Northern Fulmar

CICONIIDAE

STORKS

45

19

1

5%

Wood Stork, resident in South America, up to 1990s called the "Wood Ibis" (initially, in the 19th century thought to be an Ibis)

PELECANIDAE

PELICANS

46

8

2

25%

1

13%

ARDEIDAE

HERONS

49

62

13

21%

includes Bitterns, Egrets

THRESKIORNITHIDAE

IBISES AND SPOONBILLS

50

34

3

9%

for taxonomic 'ibis', see Ardeidae (Bubulcus ibis: Cattle Egret)

FREGATIDAE

FRIGATEBIRDS

51

5

1

1/5

Magnificent Frigatebird occurs both at Southerm West and East Coasts of the United States

SULIDAE

GANNETS AND BOOBIES

52

10

1

10%

PHALACROCORACIDAE

CORMORANTS

53

30

5

17%

2

7%

ANHINGIDAE

DARTERS

54

4

1

1/4

Other 3 species in Africa, Oriental or Australian region

HAEMATOPODIDAE

OYSTERCATCHERS AND IBISBILL

58

12

2

17%

1

8%

RECURVIROSTRIDAE

STILTS AND AVOCETS

59

7

1

14%

CHARADRIIDAE

PLOVERS AND LAPWINGS

60

67

10

15%

includes Killdeer; no extant Lapwings in NA

SCOLOPACIDAE

SANDPIPERS

65

90

37

41%

3

3%

includes Sanderling, Turnstone, Knot, Surfbird, Snipe, Dowitcher, Godwit, Curlew, Whimbrel, Phalarope, Woodcock, Tattler, Yellowlegs, Willet

ALCIDAE'

AUKS

69

24

20

83%

3

13%

includes Razorbill, Murrelet, Puffin

STERCORARIIDAE

SKUAS OR JAEGERS

70

7

4

57%

LARIDAE

GULLS AND TERNS

71

99

38

38%

5

5%

incl. Black Skimmer, formerly in Rynchopidae; incl. Noddy, Kittiwake

CATHARTIDAE

NEW WORLD VULTURES

72

7

3

43%

1

14%

includes California Condor

PANDIONIDAE

OSPREY

74

1

1

<all>

worldwide distrbution

ACCIPITRIDAE

KITES, HAWKS AND EAGLES

75

240

23

10%

3

1%

TYTONIDAE

BARN OWLS

76

19

1

5%

Barn Owl worldwide distrbution

STRIGIDAE

OWLS

77

195

18

9%

TROGONIDAE

TROGONS

80

44

1

2%

Elegant Trogon partly in Nearctic

PICIDAE

WOODPECKERS

87

216

24

11%

11

5%

ALCEDINIDAE

KINGFISHERS

94

90

3

3%

two original colonising events from Melasia

FALCONIDAE

FALCONS AND CARACARAS

96

63

7

11%

1

2%

TYRANNIDAE

TYRANT-FLYCATCHERS

116

305

32

10%

Flycatchers, Pewees, Kingbirds, Phoebes, Kiskadees endemic to Americas

VIREONIDAE

SHRIKE-BABBLERS, ERPORNIS AND VIREOS

151

62

13

21%

NA: Vireos only, endemic to Americas

LANIIDAE

SHRIKES

163

34

3

9%

CORVIDAE

CROWS AND JAYS

164

125

19

15%

10

8%

highest number of endemics (passerines) in Nearctic

PEUCEDRAMIDAE

PEUCEDRAMUS (OLIVE WARBLER)

178

1

1

<all>

formerly in Parulidae, now found to be closely related to Old Word Accentors (near-endemic to Palearctic) in the Prunellidae family (with Dunnock or Hedge Sparrow)

PASSERIDAE

SPARROWS, SNOWFINCHES AND ALLIES (introduced)

182

38

1

3%

House Sparrow introduced to NA

MOTACILLIDAE

WAGTAILS AND PIPITS

183

67

2

3%

American Pipit elsewhere called Japanese Pipit or Siberian Pipit

FRINGILLIDAE

FINCHES, EUPHONIAS AND HAWAIIAN HONEYCREEPERS

184

198

15

8%

includes Grosbeak, Crossbill, Redpoll, Siskin, Goldfinch, Rosy Finch

CALCARIIDAE

LONGSPURS

185

6

6

<all>

2

1/3

split off from Emberizidae, diverged from a common ancestor around 4.26.2 million years ago; includes Snow Bunting

PASSERELLIDAE

NEW WORLD SPARROWS AND ALLIES

188

127

41

32%

9

7%

split off from Emberizidae; Sparrow is misnomer and is based on a superficial resemblance to the family Passeridae (Old World sparrows); incl. Towhees, Juncos and Lark Bunting

PARULIDAE

NEW WORLD WOOD WARBLERS

191

106

48

45%

highest number of passerines in Nearctic; incl. American Redstart, Ovenbird, Waterthrush; none of the species called 'Wood Warbler'; Olive Warbler moved to its own family Peucedramidae, Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria) to Icteridae

ICTERIDAE

NEW WORLD BLACKBIRDS

192

104

20

19%

4

4%

includes Meadowlarks, (American) Orioles, Grackles, Cowbirds; Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) formerly in Parulidae; Meadowlark and African Yellow-throated Longclaw (Motacillidae) example of cnvergent evolution

CARDINALIDAE

CARDINALS, GROSBEAKS AND ALLIES

195

48

14

29%

earlier in Emberizidae; includes (New World) Buntings, Tanagers, Dickcissel, Pyrrhuloxia (now a 'Cardinalis')

THRAUPIDAE

TANAGERS

196

371

1

0,3%

earlier in Emberizidae; Cinnamon-rumped Seedeater became here Morelet's seedeater: Sporophila (torqueola) morelleti

PARIDAE

TITS, CHICKADEES

199

59

12

20%

6

10%

Titmouse (Baeolophus) and Chickadee (Poecile) formerly regarded as a (Palearctic) Parus specie; sSiberian Tit or Gray-headed Chickadee (Poecile cinctus) from Norway to East Siberia spread out to Alaska and Yukon

REMIZIDAE

PENDULINE TITS

200

10

1

10%

Verdin; other species in Palearctic, Afrotropical

ALAUDIDAE

LARKS

202

93

1

1%

Horned Lark: called Shore Lark in Europe

HIRUNDINIDAE

SWALLOWS

211

84

9

11%

includes Martins

PHYLLOSCOPIDAE'

OLD WORLD LEAF WARBLERS

213

77

1

1%

Arctic Warbler: East Palearctic bird occurring up to Alaska, breeding in Indochina and Indonesia; formerly in Sylviidae

AEGITHALIDAE

LONG-TAILED TITS

215

10

1

10%

Bushtit; other species (mostly Eastern) Palearctic, Oriental

SYLVIIDAE'

SYLVIA WARBLERS, PARROTBILLS AND ALLIES

216

62

1

2%

1

2%

Wrentit (Chamaea fasciata) formerly in Timaliidae (sometimes in its own family Chamaeidae, or in Aegithalidae or Paridae); only Sylvid in America; at IOC in Paradoxornithidae

REGULIDAE

GOLDCRESTS OR KINGLETS

221

6

2

1/3

new family: earlier in Sylviidae with Arctic Warbler transferred to Phylloscopidae

BOMBYCILLIDAE

WAXWINGS

223

3

2

2/3

Bohemian Waxwing circumpolar; Cedar Waxwing NA down to Costa Rica

PTILIOGONATIDAE

SILKY-FLYCATCHERS

225

4

1

1/4

CERTHIIDAE

TREECREEPERS

227

9

1

11%

Brown Creeper; other species in Palearctic, Oriental

SITTIDAE

NUTHATCHES, SALPORNISES AND WALLCREEPER

228

28

4

14%

1

4%

TROGLODYTIDAE

WRENS

229

82

10

12%

2

2%

POLIOPTILIDAE

GNATCATCHERS

230

15

1

7%

California Gnatcatcher partly Neotropical

MIMIDAE

MOCKINGBIRDS, THRASHERS

232

34

10

29%

1

3%

includes Catbirds, Tremblers

STURNIDAE

STARLINGS (introduced)

233

111

1

1%

Common Starling introduced to NA

CINCLIDAE

DIPPERS

234

5

2

2/5

MUSCICAPIDAE'

CHATS AND FLYCATCHERS

235

303

1

0,3%

Northern Wheatear: Palearctic bird with footholds in Yukon and Baffin Land; in autumn all return to Africa

TURDIDAE

THRUSHES

236

156

12

8%

1

1%

includes Veery, Solitaire, Bluebird, American Robin (a Turdus Thrush, of which trans-Atlantic movements occurred between 11 and 4 million years ago)

32% of families

Aves in Nearctic

75 families

5766

659

11%

98

2%

Aves in Nearctic

42% of families

non-passerines

42 families

3022

370

12%

61

2%

non-passerines

24% of families

passerines

33 families

2744

289

11%

37

1%

passerines

global

Aves

10027

659

7%

global

non-passerines

4021

370

9%

global

passerines

6006

289

5%

' not in Neotropical

Nearctic

global

NA

as

NA endemics

as

comments

North America down to central Mexico

number of

number of

share of

number of

share of

species

species

global

species

global species

Source: The Howard and Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world, 2013~2014

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