Afrotropical

global

AF

as

AF endemics

as

comments

Africa sub-Sahara + Southern Arabia

number of

number of

share of

number of

share of

excluding birds exotic for this area

species

species

global

species

global

STRUTHIONIDAE

OSTRICHES

1

2

2

<all>

2

<all>

ANATIDAE

DUCKS, GEESE, SWANS

8

157

29

18%

18

11%

NUMIDIDAE

GUINEAFOWL

11

6

6

<all>

6

<all>

new family: separated from Phasianidae; branched off from the core Galliformes before the Odontophoridae

ODONTOPHORIDAE

NEW WORLD QUAILS

12

33

2

6%

2

6%

new 'American' family: separated from Phasianidae; Nahan's Francolin and Stone Partridge share an Old World ancestor with New World Quails

PHASIANIDAE

PARTRIDGES, PHEASANTS, GROUSE

13

177

44

25%

41

23%

includes Francolins, Quails

PHOENICOPTERIDAE

FLAMINGOS

14

6

2

33%

PODICIPEDIDAE

GREBES

15

19

4

21%

1

5%

COLUMBIDAE

PIGEONS

16

304

42

14%

39

13%

PTEROCLIDAE

SANDGROUSE

17

16

11

69%

7

44%

up to 1980s mostly called: Pteroclididae

MESITORNITHIDAE

MESITES

18

3

3

<all>

3

<all>

endemic to Madagascar, up to the 1970s called: Mesoenatidae

PHAETHONTIDAE

TROPICBIRDS

21

3

3

<all>

CAPRIMULGIDAE

NIGHTJARS

25

90

25

28%

21

23%

APODIDAE

SWIFTS

27

99

26

26%

19

19%

CUCULIDAE

CUCKOOS

30

139

34

24%

30

22%

All 9 Couas endemic to Madagascar; includes Coucals

RALLIDAE

RAILS AND COOTS

31

127

18

14%

13

10%

SAROTHRURIDAE

FLUFFTAILS

32

9

9

<all>

9

<all>

new family (disputed): extracted from Rallidae; diverged from the rest of the group about 60 million years ago and more closely related to the family Heliornithidae

HELIORNITHIDAE

FINFOOTS

33

3

1

1/3

1

1/3

African Finfoot

GRUIDAE

CRANES

36

15

4

27%

4

27%

OTIDIDAE

BUSTARDS

37

26

18

69%

18

69%

includes Korhaan

MUSOPHAGIDAE

TURACOS

38

23

23

<all>

23

<all>

SPHENISCIDAE

PENGUINS

40

16

2

13%

2

13%

OCEANITIDAE

AUSTRAL STORM-PETRELS

41

8

4

1/2

DIOMEDEIDAE

ALBATROSSES

42

13

7

54%

HYDROBATIDAE

NORTHERN STORM-PETRELS

43

14

1

7%

PROCELLARIIDAE

PETRELS AND SHEARWATERS

44

84

31

37%

5

6%

Diving Petrels (Pelecanoides) formerly in Pelecanoididae; includes Prions

CICONIIDAE

STORKS

45

19

8

42%

5

26%

includes Marabou; Yellow-billed Stork (Mycteria ibis) called "Wood Ibis" until 1970s (Ibis ibis until 1980s); Openbill (Shell-storks, earlier called Shell-ibises)

PELECANIDAE

PELICANS

46

8

2

25%

1

1/8

SCOPIDAE

HAMERKOP

47

1

1

<all>

1

<all>

BALAENICIPITIDAE

SHOEBILL

48

1

1

<all>

1

<all>

ARDEIDAE

HERONS

49

62

22

35%

10

16%

includes Bitterns, Egrets (Cattle Egret: Bubulcus ibis with 'ibis' applied to this species in error)

THRESKIORNITHIDAE

IBISES AND SPOONBILLS

50

34

13

38%

10

29%

for taxonomic 'ibis', see Ciconiidae (Mycteria ibis: Yelow-billed Stork) and Ardeidae (Bubulcus ibis: Cattle Egret)

FREGATIDAE

FRIGATEBIRDS

51

5

3

3/5

Ascension Island Frigatebird doesn't occur close to African continent; Magnificent Frigatebird breeding in Cape Verde Islands

SULIDAE

GANNETS AND BOOBIES

52

10

4

40%

1

10%

PHALACROCORACIDAE

CORMORANTS

53

30

8

27%

6

20%

ANHINGIDAE

DARTERS

54

4

1

1/4

BURHINIDAE

THICK-KNEES

55

9

4

44%

3

1/3

includes Stone-curlew

PLUVIANIDAE

EGYPTIAN PLOVER

57

1

1

<all>

1

<all>

new family: extracted from Glareolidae

HAEMATOPODIDAE

OYSTERCATCHERS AND IBISBILL

58

12

1

8%

1

8%

RECURVIROSTRIDAE

STILTS AND AVOCETS

59

7

2

29%

CHARADRIIDAE

PLOVERS AND LAPWINGS

60

67

26

39%

17

25%

ROSTRATULIDAE

PAINTED-SNIPE

63

3

1

1/3

JACANIDAE

JACANAS

64

8

3

38%

3

38%

SCOLOPACIDAE

SANDPIPERS

65

90

25

28%

2

2%

includes Dunlin, Turnstone, Knot, Ruff, Snipe, Godwit, Curlew, Whimbrel, Phalarope, Redshank, Greenshank

TURNICIDAE

BUTTONQUAILS

66

16

4

25%

3

1/5

includes Quail-plover

DROMADIDAE

CRAB-PLOVER

67

1

1

<all>

GLAREOLIDAE

COURSERS AND PRATINCOLES

68

17

12

71%

9

53%

STERCORARIIDAE

SKUAS OR JAEGERS

70

7

4

57%

LARIDAE

GULLS AND TERNS

71

99

37

37%

5

5%

incl. African Skimmer, formerly in Rynchopidae; incl. Noddy, Kittiwake

SAGITTARIIDAE

SECRETARY-BIRD

73

1

1

<all>

1

<all>

PANDIONIDAE

OSPREY

74

1

1

<all>

ACCIPITRIDAE

KITES, HAWKS AND EAGLES

75

240

70

29%

57

24%

highest number of non-passerines in Afrotopical

TYTONIDAE

BARN OWLS

76

19

4

21%

2

11%

STRIGIDAE

OWLS

77

195

41

21%

34

17%

COLIIDAE

MOUSEBIRDS

78

6

6

<all>

6

<all>

LEPTOSOMIDAE

CUCKOO-ROLLER

79

1

1

<all>

1

<all>

endemic to Madagascar, Comoros; erroneously sometimes called Leptosomatidae (marine nematode worms)

TROGONIDAE

TROGONS

80

44

3

7%

3

7%

African genus Apaloderma seemingly basal in the family, and the other two lineages, the Asian and American, breaking off between 2036 million years ago

BUCEROTIDAE

HORNBILLS

81

55

24

44%

24

44%

UPUPIDAE

HOOPOES

82

1

1

<all>

PHOENICULIDAE

WOOD-HOOPOES

83

8

8

<all>

8

<all>

includes Scimitarbill

INDICATORIDAE

HONEYGUIDES

86

16

14

88%

14

88%

2 Asian Honeyguides probably by invasion from Africa

PICIDAE

WOODPECKERS

87

216

30

14%

29

13%

Northern Wryneck wintering in Africa

RAMPHASTIDAE

TOUCANS AND BARBETS

88

121

41

34%

41

34%

elsewhere in Lybiidae family (endemic to Afrotropical); formerly in Capitonidae; includes Tinkerbirds

MEROPIDAE

BEE-EATERS

89

27

20

74%

16

59%

CORACIIDAE

ROLLERS

90

12

8

67%

7

58%

BRACHYPTERACIIDAE

GROUND-ROLLERS

91

5

5

<all>

5

<all>

endemic to Madagascar

ALCEDINIDAE

KINGFISHERS

94

90

17

19%

16

18%

Pied Kingfisher also in Asia, derived together with American green kingfishers from Melasia

FALCONIDAE

FALCONS AND CARACARAS

96

63

19

30%

11

17%

PSITTACIDAE

AFRICAN AND NEW WORLD PARROTS

99

165

10

6%

10

6%

Poicephalus shares an Old World ancestor with New World Parrots

PSITTACULIDAE

OLD WORLD PARROTS

100

178

14

8%

13

7%

PITTIDAE

PITTAS

102

29

1

3%

1

3%

African Pitta in relatively recent times colonised Africa from the east

EURYLAIMIDAE

TYPICAL BROADBILLS

103

8

1

13%

1

13%

Grauer's Broadbill currently regarded as an actual broadbill, the only African representative of a primarily Asian family

PHILEPITTIDAE

ASITIES

104

4

4

<all>

4

<all>

endemic to Madagascar

CALYPTOMENIDAE

AFRICAN AND GREEN BROADBILLS

105

6

3

50%

3

50%

Smithornis formerly classified in the family Eurylaimidae

CAMPEPHAGIDAE

MINIVETS AND CUCKOOSHRIKES

143

85

13

15%

13

15%

All Afrotropical Cuckooshrikes endemic (Minivets in Asia)

ORIOLIDAE

ORIOLES, FIGBIRDS AND ALLIES

152

33

9

27%

8

24%

PLATYSTEIRIDAE

WATTLE-EYES AND BATISES

156

29

29

<all>

29

<all>

Lanioturdus (Chat-shrike or White-tailed Shrike) formerly in Laniidae; includes Wattle-eyes

VANGIDAE

VANGAS, HELMET-SHRIKES AND SHRIKE-FLYCATCHERS

157

36

30

83%

30

83%

20 Vangas endemic to Madagascar: Tylas removed from Pycnonotidae, Mystacornis from Timaliidae (no longer an Afrotropical family), Newtonia from Sylviidae; African continent: Bias and Pseudobias from Platysteiridae, Prionops from Laniidae; Hypositta: Nuthatch

MALACONOTIDAE

BUSH-SHRIKES, PUFFBACKS AND TCHAGRAS

160

46

46

<all>

45

98%

new family: removed from Laniidae; includes Boubous, Gonoleks and Bokmakierie

DICRURIDAE

DRONGOS

161

22

8

36%

8

36%

LANIIDAE

SHRIKES

163

34

21

62%

14

41%

includes Fiscals

CORVIDAE

CROWS AND JAYS

164

125

9

7%

7

6%

MONARCHIDAE

MONARCHS

165

93

11

12%

11

12%

various species moved to Stenostiridae and (Erythrocercus: Flycatcher Warblers) to Scotocercidae

EUPETIDAE

ROCKFOWL, ROCKJUMPER AND RAIL-BABBLER

170

4

3

3/4

3

3/4

new family: Chaetops (Rockjumper) formerly in Turdidae; Picathartes (Rockfowl) formerly in suspended family Picathardidae (Bald Crows), after having been assigned variously to the starling, babbler and crow families

PROMEROPIDAE

SUGARBIRDS AND ALLIES

172

5

5

<all>

5

<all>

new family: Modulatrix and Arcanator formerly in Turdidae; Kakamega (Thrush-babbler) from Timaliidae (no longer an Afrotropical family); Promerops from Meliphagidae

NECTARINIIDAE

SUNBIRDS

174

136

87

64%

86

63%

Sunbirds are of African origin with the short-billed, mostly insectivorous, genera Deleornis, and Anthreptes being the most primitive

PLOCEIDAE

WEAVERS

179

115

110

96%

110

96%

the Weavers are likely to have evolved in Africa; all Afrotropical Weavers are endemic, though Black-headed Weaver cagebird established in Iberia; includes Bishop, Widowbird, Fody (endemic to Madagascar and surrounding islands)

ESTRILDIDAE

WAXBILLS

180

131

75

57%

74

56%

includes (Weaver)-finches, Firefinches, Mannikins or Munias (Spermestes), Bluebills, Antpeckers, Cordon-bleu, Seedcrackers, Nigritas

VIDUIDAE

INDIGOBIRDS

181

20

20

<all>

20

<all>

new family: Vidua and Anomalospiza formerly in Ploceidae; includes Whydahs

PASSERIDAE

SPARROWS, SNOWFINCHES AND ALLIES

182

38

17

45%

14

37%

new family: several species split off from Ploceidae; House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) introduced

MOTACILLIDAE

WAGTAILS AND PIPITS

183

67

37

55%

29

43%

Amaurocichla formerly in Sylviidae; includes Longclaw; Yellow-throated Longclaw example of cnvergent evolution with American Meadowlark, both having yellow breasts marked with horseshoes of black

FRINGILLIDAE

FINCHES, EUPHONIAS AND HAWAIIAN HONEYCREEPERS

184

198

48

24%

47

24%

several Canaries, Citrils, Linnets, Grosbeaks and Oriole Finch endemic to Africa (none in Madagascar)

EMBERIZIDAE

OLD WORLD BUNTINGS

187

41

12

29%

8

20%

believed to have evolved in the New World; related to Thraupidae and Cardinalidae (both now split off from Emberizidae)

HYLIOTIDAE

HYLIOTAS

197

3

3

<all>

3

<all>

new family: Hyliota formerly in Sylviidae

STENOSTIRIDAE

FAIRY-FLYCATCHER AND CRESTED -FLYCATCHERS

198

9

6

2/3

6

2/3

new family: Stenostira formerly in Sylviidae; Elminia from Monarchidae

PARIDAE

TITS, CHICKADEES

199

59

14

24%

14

24%

REMIZIDAE

PENDULINE TITS

200

10

6

60%

6

60%

NICATORIDAE

NICATORS

201

3

3

<all>

3

<all>

formerly in Laniidae

ALAUDIDAE

LARKS

202

93

68

73%

58

62%

MACROSPHENIDAE

CROMBECS, LONGBILLS AND ALLIES

204

18

18

<all>

18

<all>

removed from Sylviidae, Rockrunner from Timaliidae

CISTICOLIDAE

CISTICOLAS

205

139

112

81%

109

78%

new family: mostly from Sylviidae; Neomixis (Jery) formerly in Timaliidae; includes Kopje

LOCUSTELLIDAE

GRASSBIRDS AND ALLIES

206

57

17

30%

15

26%

new family: earlier in Sylviidae; River Warbler wintering in East Africa, Grasshopper Warbler wintering in North and West Africa

BERNIERIDAE

MADAGASCAR WARBLERS

208

11

11

<all>

11

<all>

new family, endemic to Madagascar: Xanthomixis and Bernieria ex-Phyllastrephus Tetrakas from Pycnonotidae; Hartertula, Oxylabes, Crossleyia from Timaliidae (no longer an Afrotropical family); Thamnornis, Randia from Sylviidae

ACROCEPHALIDAE

BRUSH, REED AND SWAMP WARBLERS

209

53

24

45%

14

26%

removed from Sylviidae

HIRUNDINIDAE

SWALLOWS (MARTINS)

211

84

39

46%

31

37%

includes Martins, Saw-wings

PYCNONOTIDAE

BULBULS

212

130

63

48%

62

48%

includes Greenbuls, Brownbuls, Bristlebills, Leafloves (simple: Chlorocichla simplex, common: Phyllastrephus scandens, yellow-throated: Atimastillas flavicollis)

PHYLLOSCOPIDAE

OLD WORLD LEAF WARBLERS

213

77

11

14%

7

9%

new family: formerly in Sylviidae; includes Wood Warbler, wintering in tropical Africa, Willow Warbler, wintering down to South Africa and Chiffchaff, wintering well above the equator; Bonelli's Warblers and Woodland Warblers

SCOTOCERCIDAE

BUSH WARBLERS AND ALLIES

214

37

6

16%

6

16%

new family: formerly in Sylviidae; Pholidornis (Tit-Hylia) from Estrildidae; Erythrocercus (Flycatcher Warblers) from Monarchidae

SYLVIIDAE

SYLVIA WARBLERS, PARROTBILLS AND ALLIES

216

62

28

45%

10

16%

African Hill Babbler (Illadopsis > Sylvia abyssinica) ex-Timaliidae; species to Vangidae, Motacillidae, Hyliotidae, Stenostiridae, Macrosphenidae, Cisticolidae, Locustellidae, Bernieridae, Acrocephalidae, Phylloscopidae and Scotocercidae

ZOSTEROPIDAE

WHITE-EYES

217

120

20

17%

20

17%

All Afrotropical White-Eyes endemic; established by long‐distance immigrations from Southeast Asia; includes Speirops

PELLORNEIDAE

SMALLER BABBLERS

219

53

8

15%

8

15%

new family, formerly in Timaliidae; 'Illadopsises (Thrush-babblers) are among the best songsters in jungles anywhere, but so difficult to spot'; from Senegal to Tanzania; established by long‐distance immigrations from Southeast Asia

LEIOTHRICHIDAE

BABBLERS, LAUGHING-THRUSHES AND ALLIES

220

125

22

18%

20

16%

new family: formerly in Timaliidae; Turdoides established by long‐distance immigrations from Southeast Asia; Laughing-Trushes not in Africa; includes Chatterers

HYPOCOLIIDAE

HYPOCOLIUS AND ALLIES

224

2

1

1/2

SITTIDAE

NUTHATCHES, SALPORNISES AND WALLCREEPER

228

28

2

7%

2

7%

Salpornis formerly in Certhiidae, earlier sometimes in its own family Salpornithidae

BUPHAGIDAE

OXPECKERS

231

2

2

<all>

2

<all>

STURNIDAE

STARLINGS

233

111

46

41%

45

41%

Tristram's Starling: Syria to Yemen

MUSCICAPIDAE

CHATS AND FLYCATCHERS

235

303

138

46%

114

38%

highest number of passerines in Afrotopical; many species formerly in Turdidae, incl. Nightingale, Wheatears, several (Magpie and Ground) Robins, Palm Thrushes, Rock Trushes, Silverbird, Alethes, Blackstart, Redstart, (Anteater) Chats

TURDIDAE

THRUSHES

236

156

25

16%

25

16%

All Afrotropical Thrushes endemic; Africa secondary center Turdidae; includes Ant Thrush (compare with Formicariidae in Neotropical)

50% of families

Aves in Afrotropical

117 families

6417

2165

34%

1820

84%

Aves in Afrotropical

69% of families

non-passerines

69 families

2866

873

30%

641

73%

non-passerines

35% of families

passerines

48 families

3551

1292

36%

1179

91%

passerines

global

Aves

10027

2165

22%

22 endemic families

9%

Aves in Afrotropical

global

non-passerines

4021

873

22%

12 endemic families

12%

non-passerines

global

passerines

6006

1292

22%

10 endemic families

7%

passerines

Afrotropical

global

AF

as

AF endemics

as

comments

Africa sub-Sahara + Southern Arabia

number of

number of

share of

number of

share of

species

species

global

species

global

Source: The Howard and Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world, 2013~2014

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